Credit: ©The Royal Society
    Image number: RS.20599

    Common stingray

    Unknown, Artist
    Object type
    Library reference
    height (page): 365mm
    width (page): 230mm
    Content object
       > animal
          > fish
    Study of a common stingray here styled Pastinaca Salviani.

    Printed inscription ‘Pastinaca Salv. Tab: C:3. Sumptibus G Needham MD: é S:R.’ with further hand annotation ‘ Pastinaca marina Lævis Bællonÿ Histor. 1p. 67. Descript: Pastinaca marina prima Rondel – Pastinaca Venenose, Tab. Colum. Prior figura Raius piscus falsa C.1.3. Poyson fish. Fine or fierce flaw [?]. Cat fish.’ Numbered ‘14’ top right-hand corner.

    Plate C:3 from De historia piscium libri quatuor, by Francis Willughby and John Ray (Oxford, 1686).

    Francis Willughby (1635-1672), British naturalist, was an Original Fellow of the Royal Society.

    John Ray (1627-1705), British naturalist, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1667.

    Gualtero or Walter Needham (ca.1631-1691), British physician, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1667 and served on the council from 1671-1677.
    Object history
    The Historia Piscium, a work begun by Francis Willughby (1635–1672), completed by John Ray (1627–1705), was the first comprehensive book of ichthyology. It consists of two parts, the text and illustrations, which were printed separately but frequently bound together. For both parts, Ray drew heavily on works by others, including Hippolytus Salviani (1514-1572), Guillaume Rondelet (1507-1566), Conrad Gessner (1516-1565), Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) and more.

    The Royal Society was responsible for publication of this work, including the printing of its plates, of which there are 187 in total. This proved to be an expensive endeavour, and many of the plates were sponsored by individual Fellows to help defray the costs, such as this one, sponsored by Walter Needham (ca.1631-1691). This copy of Historia Piscium is annotated with the remarks of Tancred Robinson (1658-1748) penned down by Francis Aston (1644-1715); with later annotations by Cromwell Mortimer (c.1699-1752).
    Related fellows
    Francis Willughby (1635 - 1672, British) , Naturalist
    John Ray (1627 - 1705, British) , Naturalist
    Associated place
    <The World>
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          > United Kingdom
             > London
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