Credit: ©The Royal Society
    Image number: RS.20616

    Various fish specimens

    Unknown, Artist
    Object type
    Library reference
    height (page): 365mm
    width (page): 230mm
    Content object
       > animal
          > fish
    Ichthyological study of various species of fish, including:

    1. A thickback sole, Microchirus variegatus, here styled as Solea parva lingula rond.
    2-3. Two species of turbot, Scophthalmus maximus, here styled Rhomboides rond and Rhombus aculeatus.
    4. A foureyed sole, Microchirus ocellatus, here styled Solea oculata rond.
    5. A spotted flounder, Citharus linguatula, here styled Citharus rond.
    6. An unknown specimen here styled Aramaca brasiliens.
    7. An unknown species of scaldfish, here styled Arnoglosus rond/
    8. A rough-scaled flounder, Psettina gigantea, here styled Citharus flavus, sivp asper Rond..

    Printed inscription: 1. Solea parva lingula Rond./ 2. Rhomboides Rond./ 3. Rhombus aculeatus./ 4. Solea oculata Rond./ 5. Citharus Rond./ 6. Amaraca Brasiliens/ 7. Aroglossus Rond./ 8. Citharus flavus. Sivp asper Rond./ Sumptibus Hug: Chamberlain M:D: e. S. R.’ Numbered ‘31’ in the top right-hand corner.

    Plate F:8 from De historia piscium libri quatuor, by Francis Willughby and John Ray (Oxford, 1686).

    Francis Willughby (1635-1672), British naturalist, was an Original Fellow of the Royal Society.

    John Ray (1627-1705), British naturalist, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1667.

    Hugh Chamberlen (c.1632 – c.1720), British physician, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1681.
    Object history
    The Historia Piscium, a work begun by Francis Willughby (1635–1672), completed by John Ray (1627–1705), was the first comprehensive book of ichthyology. It consists of two parts, the text and illustrations, which were printed separately but frequently bound together. For both parts, Ray drew heavily on works by others, including Hippolytus Salviani (1514-1572), Guillaume Rondelet (1507-1566), Conrad Gessner (1516-1565), Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) and more.

    The Royal Society was responsible for publication of this work, including the printing of its plates, of which there are 187 in total. This proved to be an expensive endeavour, and many of the plates were sponsored by individual Fellows to help defray the costs, such as this one, sponsored by Hugh Chamberlen (c.1632 – c.1720). This copy of Historia Piscium is annotated with the remarks of Tancred Robinson (1658-1748) penned down by Francis Aston (1644-1715); with later annotations by Cromwell Mortimer (c.1699-1752).
    Related fellows
    Francis Willughby (1635 - 1672, British) , Naturalist
    John Ray (1627 - 1705, British) , Naturalist
    Associated place
    <The World>
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          > United Kingdom
             > London
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