Credit: ©The Royal Society
    Image number: RS.20633

    Various fish specimens

    Unknown, Artist
    Object type
    Library reference
    height (page): 365mm
    width (page): 230mm
    Content object
       > animal
          > fish
    Ichthyological study of various fish species, including:

    1. A common seasnail, Liparis liparis, here styled Liparis nostras and under the same common name.
    2. A common blenny, Lipophrys pholis, here styled Alauda non cristata Rond and under the common name ‘sea larke’.
    3. A common dragonet, Callionymus lyra, here styled Dracunculus Rond.
    4. An unidentified species, possibly of the Pholidae family, here styled Pholis Rond.
    5. An unidentified species of the Exocaetus family here styled Exocaetus Rond.
    6. A Risso’s dragonet, Callionymus risso, here styled Blennus Rond.
    7. A crested blenny, Parablennius laticlavius, here styled Galerita Rond and under the common name ‘crested sea larke’.
    8. An unidentified species of seasnail, here styled Liparis Rond.

    Printed inscription: ‘1. Liparis nostras Sea Snail Dunelmensibus/ 2. Alauda non cristata Rond/ 3. Dracunculus Rond/ 4. Pholis Rond/ 5. Exocaetus Rond. 6. Blennus Rond/ 7. Galerita Rond/ 8. Liparis Rond/ Tab: H: 6. Sumpt: D: Pauli Ricaut Equitis aurati e: S: R:’ with further handwritten annotation: ‘2. Mulgranos et Buleard Cor:nubia. Galetto Livorni the Sea Larke/ 4. Philis Alaude species/ 7. Alauda Cristata Rondel. The Crested Sea Lark’ Numbered ‘47’ in the top right-hand corner.

    Plate H:6 from De historia piscium libri quatuor, by Francis Willughby and John Ray (Oxford, 1686).

    Francis Willughby (1635-1672), British naturalist, was an Original Fellow of the Royal Society.

    John Ray (1627-1705), British naturalist, was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1667.

    Sir Paul Rycault (c.1628-1700), British diplomat and historian was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1666.
    Object history
    The Historia Piscium, a work begun by Francis Willughby (1635–1672), completed by John Ray (1627–1705), was the first comprehensive book of ichthyology. It consists of two parts, the text and illustrations, which were printed separately but frequently bound together. For both parts, Ray drew heavily on works by others, including Hippolytus Salviani (1514-1572), Guillaume Rondelet (1507-1566), Conrad Gessner (1516-1565), Ulisse Aldrovandi (1522-1605) and more.

    The Royal Society was responsible for publication of this work, including the printing of its plates, of which there are 187 in total. This proved to be an expensive endeavour, and many of the plates were sponsored by individual Fellows to help defray the costs, such as this one, sponsored by Paul Rycault (c.1628-1700). This copy of Historia Piscium is annotated with the remarks of Tancred Robinson (1658-1748) penned down by Francis Aston (1644-1715); with later annotations by Cromwell Mortimer (c.1699-1752).
    Related fellows
    Francis Willughby (1635 - 1672, British) , Naturalist
    John Ray (1627 - 1705, British) , Naturalist
    Associated place
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          > United Kingdom
             > London
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